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MLA 9th Edition Style Guide: In-text

This guide will assist you in formatting in-text citations and a Works Cited list in the current MLA style.

In-text Citations

  • The quote appears in your text
  • Starts with author’s last name o directly with quote
  • Ends with author's last name and page number in parenthesis

Here is an example of a direct quote:

"Data from recent surveys show a decline in approval of lesser gun control legislation from 86% to 49%" (Springer and Ellis 23).

  • You paraphrase what an author has said
  • Ends with last name of author and page number
  • It can begin with last name of author(s) and end with page number in parenthesis

​​​​​​​Here are two (2) examples of paraphrasing:

The authors in their 2016 study suggest that stronger gun control in the US will significantly prevent accidental shootings (Springer and Ellis 23).

Springer and Ellis, in their 2016 study suggest that stronger gun control in the US will significantly prevent accidental shootings (23).

To cite multiple citations in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations with a semi-colon.

Here is an example with two (2) authors

  • as has been discussed in other fields (Freeman 25; Rogers 119).

A source cited in another source or a secondhand source. To cite an indirect source use the abbreviation (qtd. in) which means quoted in to indicate to your reader the source you actually consulted

Here is an example of quoting an author's quotation of a source:

  • Harrison argues that high schools are pressured to act as ''social service centers, and they don't do that well" (qtd. in Foster 306).

Here is what appears in your Works Cite list

Foster, Greg. The Work of Social Workers in Schools. Rowman and Littlefield. 2019.